Jeremy S. Ditelberg MD, Ahmed Bedeir MD, Parag Patel DO, Inform Diagnostics
Research Institute, Newton, MA
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a solid tumor composed of myeloblasts occurring
outside of the bone marrow. Also known as chloroma, extramedullary myeloid
tumor or granulocytic sarcoma, it can occur in patients with acute myeloid
leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or myeloproliferative
syndromes (MPS). In the setting of a MDS or MPS, the detection of a MS
is evidence that the pre-malignant condition has transformed into an acute
leukemia. Rarely, MS is diagnosed without a known pre-existing diagnosis
of acute leukemia, MDS or MPS – this is referred to as primary MS.
Because acute leukemia develops soon after the diagnosis of primary MS
in almost all cases, primary MS is considered an initial manifestation
of acute leukemia rather than a localized process. MS has been described
in numerous organs and tissues, but most commonly involves the skin, bone
and lymph nodes. Its occurrence in the colon is exceptionally rare.
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